Amides, nitro compounds, nitriles
 

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Amides CnH2n+1CONH2

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Amide " nitrile
Reagents: phosphorus(V) oxide
Conditions: heat.

6CH3CONH2 + P4O10  "  6CH3CN + 4H3PO4


Amide " primary amine with one fewer carbon
Reagents: bromine in potassium hydroxide solution
Conditions: heat.

CH3CONH2 + Br2 + 4KOH " CH3NH2 + 2KBr + K2CO3 + 2H2O


Alkanes & alkenes
Arenes
Halogenoalkanes
Alcohols
Aldehydes and ketones

Carboxylic acids
Acyl chlorides
Amines
Nitro compounds
Nitriles
Amides

 

Nitriles CnH2n+1CN

 

Nitrile " carboxylic acid
Reagents: dilute hydrochloric acid
Conditions: boil under reflux.

CH3CN + 2H2O + HCl " CH3COOH + NH4Cl


 

Nitrile " primary amine
Reagents: sodium metal and ethanol
Conditions: heat under reflux.

CH3CN + 4[H] " CH3CH2NH2


 

Nitro compounds

 

Reduction of nitrobenzene → phenylamine
Reagents: tin metal and concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Conditions: heat under reflux on a boiling water bath.

C6H5NO2 + 6[H] " C6HNH2 + 2H2O


 

JRG Beavon 2002