Acyl chlorides
 

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Acid (acyl) chlorides CnH2n+1COCl

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Acid chloride  " carboxylic acid
Reagents: water
Conditions: r.t.; reaction is vigorous.

CH3COCl + H2O → CH3COOH + HCl


Acid chloride "  ester
Reagents: alcohol
Conditions: r.t.

CH3COCl + CH3CH2OH → CH3COOCH2CH3 + HCl

This reaction gives good yield - it is not an equilibrium - and the only other product is a gas, so it is also a clean reaction. 


Alkanes & alkenes
Arenes
Halogenoalkanes
Alcohols
Aldehydes and ketones

Carboxylic acids
Amines
Nitro compounds
Nitriles
Amides

 

Acid chloride → amide
Reagents: aqueous ammonia
Conditions: r.t., with care

CH3COCl + 2NH3 → CH3CONH2 + NH4Cl


 

Acid chloride → N-substituted amide.
Reagents: primary amine
Conditions: r.t.

CH3COCl + CH3NH2 → CH3CONHCH3 + HCl


 

JRG Beavon 2002