Simple distillation is designed to evaporate a volatile liquid from a solution of non-volatile substances; the vapour is then condensed in the water condenser and collected in the receiver.
The apparatus consists of a round-bottomed distilling flask bearing a stillhead connected to a water condenser (Liebig condenser). This is attached via a vented delivery bend to the receiver, also a round-bottomed flask. The stillhead has a thermometer adapter with a thermometer.
- the bulb of the thermometer is opposite the exit to the condenser. You want the temperature of the exit vapours since it is these that will condense.
- the delivery bend is vented so that when the apparatus is heated the joints aren't pushed apart by expanding gas. Never draw a closed apparatus.
- water goes in at the bottom of the condenser jacket and out at the top.
- note the structure of the condenser - the water jacket is separate from the tube down the middle!
Chemistry Contents Fractional distillation Reflux Gas preparation